|Causative organism||Mycoplasma genitalium (Mg)|
|Incubation period||Unknown but likely to be 60 days or longer|
|How far back to trace||The time period for contact tracing is unknown. Contact tracing is recommended for ongoing sexual partners|
|Usual testing method||Nucleic acid amplification testing on first pass urine in men (urethral swab less sensitive) and, high vaginal swab in women (cervical swab slightly less sensitive and first pass urine least sensitive). A rectal swab should be collected in MSM and females engaging in anal sex. A throat swab is not indicated.|
Often asymptomatic. Symptoms and signs when present are similar to those of chlamydia but less frequent.
|Likelihood of transmission per act of condomless intercourse||
Although it is established that M. genitalium is sexually transmitted, it is not known how often this occurs per episode of condomless sexual intercourse 
|Likelihood of long-term sexual partner being infected||Infection rates in a study of sexual contacts, that predominantly represented long term partners, are in the order of 40–50% in those with a vagina and MSM (cis and trans) (rectal site more often infected than urethral site), and 30% in heterosexual people with a penis.|
|Protective effect of condoms||Likely high|
|Transmission by oral sex||
Low as pharyngeal infection is uncommon (<1%).
Studies are limited but indicate it is uncommonly detected in the pharynx
|Duration of potential infectivity||Uncertain; however, persistent infection is common: 25% of untreated infections persist > 12 months in people with a vagina and infections up to 2-3 years have been reported. With rising antimicrobial resistance persistent infection due to treatment failure is also increasingly common.|
|Important sequelae||PID, spontaneous abortion, post-abortal PID preterm delivery and possibly tubal factor infertility in women. Limited evidence to suggest a possible role in sexually acquired reactive arthritis and epididymo-orchitis|
|Direct benefit of detection and treatment of contacts||Cure/prevention transmission|
|Usual management of contacts||
Counselling, clinical examination, testing of ongoing sexual partners.
Treat based on test result according to STI guidelines
|Contact tracing priority||Medium|
|Notification||Not notifiable in Australia or New Zealand.|
- Read TRH, Murray GL, Danielewski JA, et al. Symptoms, Sites, and Significance of Mycoplasma genitalium in Men Who Have Sex with Men. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Apr;25(4):719-727.
- Latimer RL, Shilling HS, Vodstrcil LA, et al. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium by anatomical site in men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Sex Transm Infect. 2020 Apr 27: sextrans-2019-054310. doi: 10.1136/sextrans-2019-054310. Online ahead of print
- Taylor-Robinson D, Jensen JS. Mycoplasma genitalium: from Chrysalis to multicolored butterfly. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011 Jul;24(3):498-514. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00006-11. PMID: 21734246; PMCID: PMC3131060.
- Slifirski JB, Vodstrcil LA, Fairley CK, et al. Mycoplasma genitalium Infection in Adults Reporting Sexual Contact with Infected Partners, Australia, 2008-2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017 Nov;23(11):1826-1833. doi: 10.3201/eid2311.170998.
Page last updated April 2021